Op.Dr. Nurettin Türktekin
Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome

What is the Fragile X Syndrome?

Fragile X Syndrome is a genetic disorder that primarily affects male children and is caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene. It is more commonly observed in approximately one in every 5,000 male children while occurring in about one in every 6,000 female children.

Also known as the fragile X syndrome, this condition results from mutations in the FMR1 gene, which is responsible for producing a protein called FMRP essential for both cognitive and physical development. In individuals with this disorder, excessive repeats of CGG sequences in the FMR1 gene lead to reduced or absent production of FMRP. This deficiency can lead to cognitive and behavioral problems.

Fragile X Syndrome's physical characteristics usually include intellectual disabilities, delayed language development, hyperactivity, attention deficits, difficulties in social understanding, and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.

What are the Symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome?

The symptoms of fragile X syndrome can manifest in the domains of intellectual, behavioral, and physical aspects. However, these symptoms can vary from person to person and range from mild to severe. While this syndrome predominantly affects male children, the symptoms might be milder in females due to the presence of a second X chromosome. Some of the most common symptoms of Fragile X disease are described below:

  • Physical features
  • Stereotypical movements
  • Hyperactivity and attention deficits
  • Delayed language development
  • Social and emotional issues

Person with fragile X syndrome often exhibits mild to moderate learning disabilities, with difficulties in grasping mathematical concepts, abstract thinking, and problem-solving abilities. Nonetheless, the level of intellectual functioning can vary among children. Hyperactivity, attention deficit, and struggles with focusing are also frequently observed. Individuals might find it challenging to concentrate on a single task and may display restlessness. Additionally, certain physical features like elongated facial structures, large ears, and a prominent forehead are more commonly seen in this group. These physical traits can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome.

How is Fragile X Syndrome Diagnosed?

To diagnose Fragile X Syndrome, specific steps need to be followed. The first step involves a clinical evaluation by a specialist in the field. This assessment includes the child's medical history, history, and symptoms. During this process, intellectual, physical, and behavioral symptoms are observed. Diagnosis is typically confirmed through genetic tests. The individual's DNA is examined, and the number of CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene is determined. While the normal range for these repeats is between 5 and 40, individuals with Fragile X can have numbers exceeding 200 CGG repeats.

Furthermore, methylation analysis is performed on the FMR1 gene. This is a chemical process that affects the normal function of the gene. Differences in methylation patterns can indicate the presence of the syndrome and aid in its detection. Once diagnosed, families are provided with genetic counseling, which covers coping with the syndrome, symptom management, and family planning.

Early diagnosis of the syndrome, as with many conditions, is crucial for creating an appropriate treatment and support plan. If there is suspicion of Fragile X Syndrome in a child, it's important to reach out to a specialist without delay.

What Are the Treatment Methods for Fragile X Syndrome?

The treatment of Fragile X Syndrome requires a multidisciplinary approach tailored to the individual's specific needs. It's important to note that there is no definitive cure for this condition. The process may involve various methods depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Special education and behavioral therapies are commonly favored, as they can help improve language development, social skills, self-care, and daily life skills. These therapies, guided by experts, focus on enabling the child to move comfortably.

Speech therapy is used for individuals with delayed language development to enhance communication skills and increase expressive abilities. Additionally, occupational therapy and physical therapy can be utilized to improve motor skills, increase muscle strength, and support coordination. Medication treatment may also be considered for managing specific symptoms. Medications are often prescribed for addressing hyperactivity and short attention spans.

For children with sensory sensitivities, sensory integration therapy can help them tolerate stimuli better. Practices like sensory integration therapy aim to facilitate appropriate motor responses to visual, auditory, and tactile information, focusing on motor coordination and joint stability.

For children with Fragile X Syndrome, families are educated on how to provide support tailored to the individual's needs. Guidance is offered to adults on how to assist their children's development through daily routines and activities. Special education programs for individuals with Fragile X Syndrome aim to shape the educational process by highlighting their strengths. Successful treatment relies on closely monitoring developmental milestones and providing families with accurate information.

Behavioral approaches, such as managing problem behaviors and rewarding positive behaviors, can help shape behavior. Special education can significantly improve the management of these issues. Turkey's top IVF specialist, Op. Dr. Nurettin Türktekin, offers treatment options to patients with a comprehensive approach for various different issues. For more detailed information, don't hesitate to get in touch with us.



Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or vesicles seen inside the ovary. Normally, during each menstrual period, a cyst called a follicle, which carries the egg cell and can reach 3 cm in size, forms in the ovaries. Then this cyst cracks and the egg is released. In young girls with ovulation problems, normal or physiological follicle cysts that cannot rupture can grow every month and reach 5-10 cm, while small numbers of 0.5-1 cm in size, which we call polycystic ovaries, can be seen in series. Apart from these functional cysts, benign or malignant ovarian cysts can also be seen in all age groups.

Except for the most common functional ovarian cysts, cysts can be benign or malignant tumoral cysts. In addition, as a result of infection, abscess-shaped cysts may occur, which is usually accompanied by pain and high fever.


Fragile X Syndrome is a disorder linked to the X chromosome and can be inherited genetically. If there is a mutation in the FMR1 gene on one of the X chromosomes inherited from the mother, the syndrome can be passed on.

Children with Fragile X Syndrome can exhibit symptoms of autism. There are some overlapping symptoms between these two conditions. However, they are diagnosed separately.

Yes, the effects of Fragile X Syndrome generally last throughout a person's life. However, early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and educational approaches can help individuals maximize their potential.

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