Op.Dr. Nurettin Türktekin
Congenital Uterine Malformations

Congenital Uterine Malformations

What are Congenital Uterine Malformations?

Congenital uterine malformations refer to conditions where a woman's uterus has an abnormal structure from birth.

The definition of "What does congenital mean?" is the following: It describes a disorder that a person carries from birth. Then, it's important to understand the question of what the uterus is. This is a significant organ of the female reproductive system, also known as the womb. It is situated in the pelvic region, between the bladder and the colon. Its main function is to carry the embryo and fetus during pregnancy.

The shape of the female uterus is somewhat similar to an inverted pear and consists of three main parts: the fundus (upper part), the corpus (middle part), and the cervix (the neck of the uterus). During pregnancy, the uterus thickens its inner lining to provide a suitable environment for embryo implantation and growth. It also contains layers of muscles that can contract and relax to support the growth of the embryo and fetus. Various uterine shapes exist.

Uterine shape malformations arise when this organ doesn't develop its normal shape during the embryonic period. A congenital anomaly can affect the reproductive tract and lead to fertility problems. Sometimes, they might not cause any symptoms and can go unnoticed. However, in some cases, symptoms like pain, menstrual irregularities, recurrent miscarriages or preterm can occur. During the evaluation of women with fertility issues, uterine shape abnormalities should be considered. Treatment is usually determined based on symptoms, the patient's age, health status, and pregnancy plans.

What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Malformations?

There are several common symptoms associated with uterine shape abnormalities. Individuals with this condition might experience disruptions in their menstrual cycle, leading to irregular periods, painful experiences, or excessive bleeding. Some women might even experience pelvic pain or cramps as a result, often exacerbated during menstruation.

Specific abnormalities like a septate uterus can contribute to recurrent miscarriages. The abnormal structure of the uterine cavity can prevent healthy embryo implantation. Furthermore, such abnormalcies can complicate the progression of a healthy pregnancy. Therefore, uterine shape disorders can be taken into consideration when addressing infertility issues in women.

A congenital disorder can also lead to pain during sexual intercourse and even urinary issues. They might exert pressure on the bladder, making urination difficult. Recognizing the symptoms and promptly consulting a specialist in the field is crucial. Additionally, understanding what constitutes a healthy uterus is important. These are passed directly from mother to fetus at birth or during breastfeeding. This is the answer to the question of how is a congenital infection contracted.

Types of Uterine

The uterus can be categorized into different types due to anatomical and structural variations. Here are some types of female uterine shapes:

  • Normal: In this type of uterus, there are two separate uterine horns and two separate uterine cavities. Each uterine cavity can carry an embryo or fetus independently.
  • Bicornuate Uterus: This Y-shaped uterus has two separate horns at the upper part and terminates in two separate gaps. There's only one uterine cervix, but the uterus has two endometrial cavities.
  • Unicornuate Uterus: In this type, there's only one uterine horn and one uterine cavity. It is smaller than normal, and only one side of uterus develops.
  • Septate Uterus: One or more partitions (septums) are present in the inner part of the uterus. These partitions divide the uterine cavity, potentially leading to complications during pregnancy.
  • Heart-Shaped: This type of uterus has a slight indentation or bulge on its inner surface. The fundamental structure is relatively normal, but there might be a slight curve in some cases.
  • Incomplete Septate: In this type, the internal partition (septum) doesn't fully divide the uterus. One side of the uterine cavity may have more tissue while the other side could be less developed.
  • T-Shaped: This type refers to a uterus that is flatter and wider than normal, which can cause issues during pregnancy.

These variations in uterine shape stem from congenital structural differences and can impact the risks and complications associated with pregnancy processes. If there's a suspicion of abnormal uterine structure in a woman or if she's experiencing reproductive health issues, consulting a healthcare professional is important. An expert doctor can conduct necessary examinations to determine the appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan. The question of how to correct uterine curvature can only be addressed after a detailed consultation.

Treatment Methods for Congenital Uterine Anomalies

The treatment methods for uterine malformations can vary based on factors such as age, symptoms, health status, pregnancy plans, and the severity of the condition. In some cases, surgical intervention might be necessary. Uterine corrective surgery, particularly suitable for conditions like a septate uterus, involves correcting or removing abnormal partitions or structures within the organ. Minimal invasive surgical methods like hysteroscopy can ensure a smoother recovery process.

Laparoscopic surgery might also be preferred to address issues related to uterine malformations. This approach involves making small incisions and performing the operation with the assistance of a camera and surgical instruments. If only one side of the woman's uterus has a normal structure, pregnancy might be achieved from the non-risk side. This approach could potentially enhance the likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy in some cases.

Additionally, medications prescribed by a specialist can be used to alleviate symptoms like irregular periods or pain associated with this condition. Hormone-based treatments or specific pain relievers can help manage symptoms. Women with these abnormalities should work closely with a knowledgeable doctor during the pregnancy planning phase. The pregnancy process should be closely monitored, and precautions should be taken when necessary to prevent complications. Dr. Nurettin Türktekin might be the expert you are looking for. Contact us for more detailed information about the procedure.



Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or vesicles seen inside the ovary. Normally, during each menstrual period, a cyst called a follicle, which carries the egg cell and can reach 3 cm in size, forms in the ovaries. Then this cyst cracks and the egg is released. In young girls with ovulation problems, normal or physiological follicle cysts that cannot rupture can grow every month and reach 5-10 cm, while small numbers of 0.5-1 cm in size, which we call polycystic ovaries, can be seen in series. Apart from these functional cysts, benign or malignant ovarian cysts can also be seen in all age groups.

Except for the most common functional ovarian cysts, cysts can be benign or malignant tumoral cysts. In addition, as a result of infection, abscess-shaped cysts may occur, which is usually accompanied by pain and high fever.


The diagnosis of uterine malformations is often done through methods like pelvic examination, ultrasound, hysterosalpingography (uterine X-ray), or hysteroscopy. These methods help visualize the structure and internal aspects of the uterus in detail.

Uterine malformations can increase the risks during pregnancy. Complications like preterm labor, placental issues, and fetal positioning problems can occur. However, with expert monitoring and appropriate treatment, these risks can be minimized. Additionally, there are cases of individuals with uterine shape abnormalities who still have successful pregnancies.

Considering that uterine malformations are often congenital, there are no direct prevention methods. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, undergoing regular check-ups, and seeking expert opinions when necessary are important for preserving reproductive health.

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