Op.Dr. Nurettin Türktekin
Varicocele Treatments

Varicocele Treatments

Varicocele and Male Infertility What You Need to Know

Varicocele formation can develop due to many reasons. In its simplest form, varicocele is the swelling of the veins in the scrotum. It is defined as a discomfort that can be seen at any age in inferfility male. However, it does not always show symptoms. In some cases, it may appear as pain, swelling, and heaviness.

A recent study showed that this disorder accounts for 30 percent of men infertility cases. Left testicular varicocele is most common. Rarely, it can occur on both sides. In cases where it is not treated on time, it can lead to greater health problems. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment practices are extremely important in varicocele as in many other diseases.

What is Varicocele?

Varicocele in men is a health problem that causes enlargement and swelling of the veins around the testicles. It can cause reproductive problems with impaired blood flow to the testicles. It is also shown among the most common causes of infertility in males. Today, varicocele is seen in 1 out of every 10 men. It usually starts in adolescence and may become more prominent in later ages.

It is predominantly seen in the left side of testicle. The main reason for this is that the left one is in a lower position than the other one. It is exposed to more blood pressure than the right testicle, which triggers varicocele formation. It usually does not give symptoms. However, varicocele pain and swelling problems may occur over time. 

How Many Types of Varicocele?

Varicocele grading is generally classified into three groups. These are briefly as follows:

Grade 1 Varicocele: It is felt by manual examination during straining and straining.

Grade 2 Varicocele: It can be felt during a manual examination without straining.

Grade 3 Varicocele: It is easily recognized even when viewed from the outside. It can be seen even during rest.

Primary varicocele is not associated with a primary cause. It usually refers to a condition with no apparent cause. It occurs in the left testicle and the symptoms are quite mild. Secondary varicocele develops as a result of another medical condition. This type usually develops due to an underlying health problem. Different treatments can be applied depending on grades varicocele and the underlying cause.

What are the Symptoms of Varicocele?

Among the symptoms of varicocele, many effects can be seen over time. Generally, grade 1 varicocele does not give symptoms. However, in cases where the disease progresses, some symptoms appear intensely. As a condition that disrupts the blood flow to the testicles, serious discomfort may occur in the future.

Some of the varicocele symptoms are brief as follows:

  • Pain and swelling in the testicles,
  • Warmth or itching in the testicles,
  • One testicle is larger than the other,
  • Drooping testicles,
  • Increase in symptoms in hot weather, etc.

Varicocele can give many different mild or severe pains. In some cases, there may be varicocele even if these symptoms are not seen. It is extremely important to get a specialist opinion for the correct diagnosis and treatment.

Why Does Varicocele Occur?

Many factors can be counted among the causes of varicocele. Although the causes are not known for certain today, there are some situations that may be effective. The main factor in the formation of varicocele, which develops due to various reasons, may need to be found and an appropriate treatment may also be required. Among the causes of varicocele, the following are considered in the first place:

  • The emergence of a problem with blood flow in the spermatic cord.
  • Increased pressure of the blood in the vein.
  • Genetic factors etc.

Most people wonder "Is varicocele dangerous?". There is no definite reason for the emergence of varicocele disease. However, such factors can trigger the emergence of the disease. It usually occurs in men during adolescence.

Does Varicocele Spontaneously Pass?

When varicocele medication or other treatment methods are not applied, it may cause bigger problems in the future. It is not a spontaneous condition. It occurs when the veins around the testicles in the scrotum area enlarge and swell, and the problem of enlargement of these veins and valve insufficiency often does not resolve spontaneously.

Treatment may not be required in cases that are mild or non-significant and do not pose a problem with reproduction. Among the treatment options, there are many different methods. Since self-treatment will not be possible, in cases where you suspect varicocele, you should consult a specialist physician as soon as possible.

Does Varicocele Grow?

Varicocele can develop in size over time. However, this situation varies from person to person. It occurs as a result of the accumulation of blood in the veins and further expansion of the veins. Although it grows in some cases over time, the growth may not be very pronounced.

Varicocele, which is expressed as the enlargement of the veins around the testicle, also affects testosterone production due to the fact that the size of the testicle is very affected. Some patients with varicocele may experience growth, while others may not have such symptoms.

What are Varicocele Normal Values?

Varicocele value is determined according to certain criteria. As a result of the tests and examination, appropriate treatments will be required for patients with varicocele above the normal value.

According to the general opinion, 3 or more than 3 veins in the collecting vascular network are examined and if the diameter of the vein is greater than 3 mm, varicocele can be diagnosed. Generally, 3 mm and more is accepted as sufficient size for the diagnosis to decide on surgery.

Does Varicocele Cause Azoospermia?

It is also possible for different problems to occur when appropriate treatments are not performed within the scope of varicocele surgery. As it is known, azoospermia is a condition in which there are no sperm cells in the semen formed in the male reproductive organs. However, there is no definitive diagnosis that varicocele causes azoospermia. Despite this, it has been reported in recent years that varicocele correction provides sperm quality and output.

Since azoospermia can develop due to obstruction, conditions such as varicocele can lead to this condition in certain situations. Although there is no direct relationship in the general framework, it is possible to be seen in some patients. Since both conditions can lead to reproductive problems, early diagnosis and treatment are essential. 

How is Varicocele Treatment Performed?

Varicocele treatment will vary according to the general health status of the patients, the causes, and the type of varicocele. Therefore, it is not possible to talk about a single treatment method. Firstly, it should be observed whether the patients have certain symptoms and a definitive diagnosis should be made. Then appropriate ways are determined.

In general, more than 3 mm is considered sufficient for surgical procedures. Treatment is defined as surgical treatment, or varicocele embolization can be applied. In general, varicocele surgery is widely preferred in treatment for varicocele today. The treatment process varies according to the methods to be preferred. The operation process is usually completed successfully.

How is Varicocele Surgery Performed?

Within the scope of varicocele surgery, the enlarged veins around the testicles are corrected. Generally, the testicular veins are accessed through a 2 cm incision in the groin area. Under a microscope, enlarged veins are separated from other veins and ligated. Although it requires a detailed procedure, it is not considered a difficult operation. Since thin veins are dealt with in the surgical operation, the surgeon's expertise and experience are extremely important.

After a small incision, the enlarged veins caused by varicocele are examined. After the ligation and cutting of the veins, the incision is closed. Afterward, the healing process will begin. Varicocele surgery is usually completed within a few hours. The majority of patients are discharged on the same day or the next day. The healing process varies from person to person. Patients can usually return to their normal activities within a few days.

Op. Dr. Nurettin Türktekin has treated many men with varicoceles and achieved successful results with the help of his 12 years of IVF experience, patient-oriented approach and the importance he attaches to the effective use of advanced technology. Please reach us from our contact information to get the best infertility treatment in Istanbul.



Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or vesicles seen inside the ovary. Normally, during each menstrual period, a cyst called a follicle, which carries the egg cell and can reach 3 cm in size, forms in the ovaries. Then this cyst cracks and the egg is released. In young girls with ovulation problems, normal or physiological follicle cysts that cannot rupture can grow every month and reach 5-10 cm, while small numbers of 0.5-1 cm in size, which we call polycystic ovaries, can be seen in series. Apart from these functional cysts, benign or malignant ovarian cysts can also be seen in all age groups.

Except for the most common functional ovarian cysts, cysts can be benign or malignant tumoral cysts. In addition, as a result of infection, abscess-shaped cysts may occur, which is usually accompanied by pain and high fever.


Varicoceles are relatively common among men. They are most often diagnosed in people between the ages of 15 and 25, but can occur at any age.

Although recurrence is possible, it is rare after successful treatment. It is important to liaise with a specialist doctor to monitor the situation.

Varicoceles often develop without a specific cause, so the chances of prevention are limited. However, wearing supportive underwear, avoiding prolonged standing or heavy lifting can help prevent the condition from developing.

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